Full Name: Adiponectin
Genomic Location: Chromosome 3:186,842,668-186,858,463
Protein Size: 244 amino acids
Important adipokine involved in the control of fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity, with direct anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. Stimulates AMPK phosphorylation and activation in the liver and the skeletal muscle, enhancing glucose utilization and fatty-acid combustion. Antagonizes TNF-alpha by negatively regulating its expression in various tissues such as liver and macrophages, and also by counteracting its effects. Inhibits endothelial NF-kappa-B signaling through a cAMP-dependent pathway. May play a role in cell growth, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling by binding and sequestering various growth factors with distinct binding affinities, depending on the type of complex, LMW, MMW or HMW.
Variants Arg-84 and Ser-90 show impaired formation of HMW complexes whereas variants Cys-112 and Thr-164 show impaired secretion of adiponectin in any form.
- rs1501299 is linked to ADIPOQ, it is located within an intronic region of the gene.
- Population frequencies are approximately 70% for the reference allele (C) and 30% for the alternate allele (A).
- Studies suggest the A allele is associated with increased health risk that is mitigated by exercise, while the C allele is associated with a beneficial response to diets low in red meat.