Full Name: Dopamine Receptor D4

Genomic Location: Chromosome 

Protein Size: 


Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Activated by dopamine, but also by epinephrine and norepinephrine, and by numerous synthetic agonists and drugs.

This gene encodes the D4 subtype of the dopamine receptor. The D4 subtype is a G-protein coupled receptor which inhibits adenylyl cyclase. It is a target for drugs which treat schizophrenia and Parkinson disease. Mutations in this gene have been associated with various behavioral phenotypes, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and the personality trait of novelty seeking.

Linked SNP(s):

  • rs1800955 is linked to DRD4, it is located approximately 500 bases downstream.
  • Population frequencies are approximately 57% for the reference allele (T) and 43% for the alternate allele (C).
  • Studies suggest the T allele is associated with a higher resilience score, while the C allele is associated with increased novelty seeking and adventure sports.
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