Full Name: Interleukin 1 Beta

Genomic Location: Chromosome 2:112,829,751-112,836,903

Protein Size: 269 amino acids


Potent pro-inflammatory cytokine. Initially discovered as the major endogenous pyrogen, induces prostaglandin synthesis, neutrophil influx and activation, T-cell activation and cytokine production, B-cell activation and antibody production, and fibroblast proliferation and collagen production. Promotes Th17 differentiation of T-cells. Synergises with IL12/interleukin-12 to induce IFNG synthesis from T-helper 1 (Th1) cells.

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This cytokine is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1 (CASP1/ICE). This cytokine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) by this cytokine in the central nervous system (CNS) is found to contribute to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. 

Linked SNP(s):

  • rs16944 is linked to IL1B, it is located approximately 300 bases upstream.
  • Population frequencies are approximately 42% for the reference allele (A) and 58% for the alternate allele (G).
  • Studies suggest the A allele is associated with increased anxiety.
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